As in many emerging countries, the flora of Vietnam suffers from demographic pressure and often brutal development. The diversity of latitudes and altitudes has, however, favored very specific types of vegetation and species, ranging from temperate forest to primary forest through wooded savannas and steppe zones.
In the gardens and orchards, a multitude of plants do not necessarily originate from Asia. The favorable climate has of course encouraged their implantation, for the pleasure of the eye, nose or taste buds.
Thus flamboyants, papayers, sapotilliers, pineapples or fruits of the dragon, etc ...
Gastronomy will be a good opportunity to discover the country's rich vegetables.
This part of South East Asia is mainly the land of origin of a large number of species such as banana, mango, mangosteen, citrus, ginger, turmeric, cinnamon, lemongrass, etc. And the forests and nature areas will reveal you plants that you are more accustomed to see near the radiators, orchids, platyceriums, ficus of all kinds, or lagerstroemias, rosewoods, rattans, kegs and other wild palms.
Three dominant climates dominate the vegetation of Vietnam.
In the North four seasons, with a high humidity, as well as very pronounced peaks of heat during the stormy summer.
On the heights of Tonkin, climates that can be cool will favor the coexistence of temperate-type floras with tropical floras (fagaces on a northern mountainous facade opposite to rattans and bananas on the sunny facade)
The Center has a much more complex climate, due to the breaks caused by the numerous headlands that separate the coastal plains and generate so many particularities.
The soils are also very permeable, so plants of arid and dry soils such as dracaenas and some euphorbia sometimes take advantage of more aquaphilous plants. Moreover, man is not unfamiliar with the desertification of certain areas cultivated and then abandoned or coastal areas (mangroves) cleared for aquaculture.
The Annamite Cordillera, with its frequent precipitation, harbors the most important primary forests.
In the High Plateaux, descending towards the South, forests-clearings with dipterocarpses and savannas raised with mimosaceae occupy the lands that have not devolved to the rubber tree, the conifers or the coffee.
Finally, the South, mainly the Mekong Delta and the Saigon region, can be considered as a sub-equatorial zone. The Camau mangrove is the second largest in the world, The most representative luxuriant forests are in the islands (Con Dao, Phu Quoc).
As everywhere in the tropics, the wilderness retreats before the galloping demographies. But many areas remain enclaved and difficult to access. In addition, as part of a conservation policy, national parks are important for the protection of many endangered species.
The elephant could be the symbol of the country, there are its legends, in certain tribes of the High Plateaux it is sacred and is part of the family once domesticated. But it still exists in the wild. The same goes for the tiger, the panther, for a few unicorn rhinoceros or for the gaur, one of the largest wild bovids on the planet.
But the nature of Vietnam made the front page of the scientific journals of the whole world a few years ago with the discoveries of some representatives of the fauna that were not referenced anywhere. Thus, the universal encyclopedia has recently been enriched with "new animals" such as megamuntjacus, pseudoryx or the monkey of foliage.
As for bird fauna, it is particularly well represented in areas protected by hornbills, parrots, argus, many species of raptors. Note also that we are in the land of origin of our domestic hen, and that it is common to hear it singing in the forest.
The great forests still shelter their batches of monkeys, be they macaques in coastal forests or gibbons in primary forests.
The coasts are bathed by particularly hot tropical waters. Coral reefs are in the process of being protected, hosting about 300 species of fish and many invertebrates. Humpback whales and whale sharks seasonally frequent territorial waters rich in plankton and krill.
The main national parks are: the Con Son archipelago off the mouths of the Mekong, Cat Ba near Halong Bay, Cat Tien in the Upper Klong, Ba Bè in the Northern Mountains, Vu Quang in the Cordillera Annamite or Bach Ma near the Pass of the Clouds.
Some individual initiatives are currently being attempted, such as the Whale Island project as a terrestrial and marine conservatory, including attempts to re-establish reefs.
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